What works? Teacher Action Research works.

 ‘I think the thing that attracted me to TARP was the fact that actually what we are doing is looking at something that is a lot more research-based… it’s much more useful to be thinking about what does make a difference in the classroom; how does one implement it; how does one disseminate it and how does one go through the process of being more professionally engaged with the science and craft of teaching.’ TARP teacher, 2019

What was the Teacher Action Research Project?

Between October 2018 and June 2019 I delivered a Teacher Action Research Project – TARP – to a group of 8 secondary school teachers from across England, meeting on three occasions at UCL Institute of Education (IOE), where I work. The project was funded by UCL Widening Access and Participation, whose remit is to increase the uptake of places at leading universities by students from disadvantaged backgrounds.

The teachers chose themes and interventions that they judged likely to make a substantial difference to their own students: some focused on aspects of their classroom practice that they wished to adapt; others conducted their action research on an element of their wider school responsibility. The only stipulation was that they must concentrate on outcomes for their disadvantaged students.

Summary of the interventions and outcomes

Three were interested in the process of student learning; they were keen to increase their students’ awareness of how they learn, and to see the extent to which this would contribute to their academic progress. These projects may be labelled metacognitive strategies. The self-regulation of learners was a feature across several other projects. One hypothesised that, to address the demands of new linear exams at A level, teachers needed to address the metacognitive skills of their students and could best achieve this through explicit modelling of written responses; two English teachers conducted projects which focused on boosting subject-specific vocabulary in Key Stage 4. These three enquiries can be loosely grouped as language and literacy. One teacher, whose whole-school role embraces Careers Education, was interested in the link between students’ self-efficacy and realistic career choices; the project of the final practitioner-researcher saw her department take a range of new evidence-informed approaches to teaching Geography at Key Stage 3. These last two come under the very broad heading curriculum development but, like the rest, are complex interventions concerned largely with students’ self-regulation.

There were many common findings across the eight action research projects. Many saw student confidence as a prerequisite to progress; others saw that increased confidence was an outcome of their projects. The same could be said for the issue of teacher-student relationships: some saw them improve, while others identified them as a continuing threat to successful outcomes. Teaching strategies that placed an emphasis on student self-reflection, their metacognition and self-regulation all had promising results for disadvantaged students and others. Likewise, modelling of exemplar answers, emphasis on appropriate subject vocabulary and the embedding of strategies which force students to retrieve prior knowledge: greater focus upon these pedagogical approaches did bear fruit for many of the disadvantaged students whose progress was tracked. Not all projects succeeded on their own terms. Those where the number or complexity of interventions were greatest found it difficult to implement change or to track the impact of the changes they did implement. In some few cases, the participating teachers speculated that their innovation may have in some way hampered the progress of the students they were trying to help, but this was a minority finding. Others were able to reflect upon the extraneous factors which continue to impede the progress of their disadvantage students.

What TARP has to say about innovations that make a positive difference to disadvantaged students

Modelling

Modelling happened in several ways across the projects. In some cases this involved the use of a visualiser in class to highlight features of exemplary practice; in another it included the repeated use of model answers provided by exam boards; one teachers referred to the ‘talking aloud’ strategy, whereby the teacher models their thinking as they construct an answer ‘live’ in front of their class. One found that ‘it was clear that all students, disadvantaged or not, wanted to see what excellence looked like and had a genuine thirst for knowledge.’ The progress of her High Prior Attaining Pupil Premium students improved, but so did that of most of the rest of the two Year 11 English classes in her study. Another – who had analysed the planning and teaching of A level subjects that had performed well since the reintroduction of linear exams – wanted to see what lessons could be learned by those departments whose results had dipped. A student survey identified more modelling of exam questions as the area that would help them improve the most. Teachers in two subjects agreed to a six-week implementation of explicit modelling – specifically of exam board answers and typically within homework – and to track the impact upon the bursary students through internal assessment and mock exams. In maths half the bursary students in the set improved their grade while the rest remained as they were. The picture was similar in economics, where one bursary student improved their grade while the other remained static.

 

Building good relations and a culture of trust

One teacher contended that ‘establishing a culture of trust within a class is central to students making progress.’

Some participating teachers pointed to the trust that was an outcome of involvement in the project. One (who did a lunchtime group intervention focused on the students’ knowledge retrieval skills) saw that ‘as the interventions progressed, the girls started to become more and more accountable for each other and encouraging one another to meet the demands of their courses.’ She spotted a relationship between that burgeoning culture of trust in the group and their regard for themselves as learners, which (for all but one of the group) improved also. Another noted that, the more familiar his Year 13 English Literature students were with simple cognitive processes and the rationale behind the approaches to feedback he was taking, the more they trusted him and the tasks he was setting.

 

Student confidence

For this teacher, this trust in him and his teaching was a contributory factor in the students’ growing confidence going into their exams. One of his students said she had begun to ‘trust my own thinking’.

Among one teacher’s Year 10s, after the four months of her careers and options guidance programme

‘82% of the students felt that they were now more confident to make decisions related to their career paths highlighting that the project has been somewhat successful in breaking down the barriers to career self-efficacy and increasing student confidence.’

She concluded that it was the early and structured nature of the intervention which helped the students be more confident in their decision-making.

A geography teacher, implementing a new Key Stage 3 curriculum, explicitly measured the confidence of her students using ‘feedback circles’ in the lessons. She and her colleagues were alarmed at the high rate of students describing themselves as within the ‘panic zone’ when they were asked to think hard. But, persisting with their innovations – and in particular the demand that their students ‘speak like a geographer’ – they found gradually that ‘most of the students moved out of the panic zone and into the stretch zone’.

Teaching which boosts vocabulary

An English teacher noticed that students, who were unfazed at the prospect of producing two to three pages of work would still feel anxious about giving ‘the right answer’, and this stopped them writing. A ‘heightened focus on relevant terminology’ was one of the factors leading to improved progress for Pupil Premium students with higher prior attainment. The geography teacher’s students, as they moved out of their panic zone, began to expand their discipline vocabulary.

‘This started to finally pay off and after a few weeks teachers and students started to use these words as a matter of course (in the interviews this is something teachers referred to again and again and were quite amazed by.)’

Another English teacher delighted that some of her students had become ‘word hungry’ – asking for vocabulary and prepared to use the thesaurus – but she sounded a warning note too.

‘Students accessed and used a range of complex and higher level vocabulary that they would otherwise either not have the tools or confidence to access… Students are empowered when given tailored vocabulary – however students do not have the skills to be able to build upon this independently.’

They remained reluctant to source higher level vocabulary for themselves, or to transfer the new vocabulary they had learned to other subject areas.

 

Metacognition and Retrieval Practice

Several of the TARP teachers used their enquiries to test their supposition that students make better progress the more they are aware of the processes of learning. As noted already, an A level English teacher found that his students trusted him and his methods the more they recognised that they had some basis in cognitive science. He concluded that placing subject knowledge at the heart of the curriculum yielded significant benefits that seemed to go beyond simply recalling knowledge.

‘The ease with which the students retrieved information decreased cognitive load. It seemed that being able to retrieve knowledge with relative ease freed up cognitive space to concentrate on structuring essays and writing well.’

The teacher of the lunchtime intervention group found that they began to bring in examples of dual-coding they had produced in Science and discussed flash card examples for their humanities revision.

‘It was evident that they had not only taken a more independent approach to selecting and using appropriate recall and retrieval strategies but were also open and willing to share these with their peers.’

Caveats

These were small studies, a few conducted across a department or between two or three groups, most confined to a single class. Within that, the teachers tracked the impact of their projects on the much smaller number of specifically disadvantaged students. It is an advantage of action research that it allows participating teachers to spot the often very small, yet significant, changes that can occur when a modification is made to teaching. The methodology is essentially qualitative, which allows the teachers to report on the attitudes and behaviours which are both factors in and outcomes of learning. But the datasets are necessarily tiny, and the measures of attainment – short of public exam data – are assessed by the teachers themselves. (TARP concluded before the end of the Summer term, i.e. before the release of the 2019 public exams.)

The teachers on TARP were clearly invested in the successes of their interventions, and they were mindful of the pitfalls of bias. Several, in their own reporting, speculated upon the possible negative consequences of their study. One teacher’s English department colleagues undertook a lesson study into the expanded use of higher order language to enable their students to express perspective. She noted that they enjoyed the ‘safe’ bank of vocabulary they were given and asked

‘Are we inhibiting students by providing them with too much? Do we over-stimulate or confuse students with SEN? Some students feel they have to use every new word, which then makes their written responses convoluted.’

 

The geographer in the group also expressed a residual concern for her lower prior attaining students. When she and her geography colleagues rewrote their Key Stage 3 curriculum, they found that their higher and middle prior attainers responded well. But the lower prior attainers – especially those deemed to be at Levels 1 or 2 – did not. She remained confident in the approaches taken by her colleagues but was cognisant also of making too bold a claim.

 

Final comments

The Teacher Action Research Projects have made a positive difference to disadvantaged students in the eight schools. They have also affected the teachers themselves, their confidence as practitioners and their sense of their place in the profession. All intend to continue with the practices they innovated this year, and several have expanded their plans.

Reflecting on TARP, one commented

‘I think that to be effective educators, we need to be able to process, explore and consider the research before it is implemented, so that it can have a more positive impact on our students.’

The final word should go to another, for whom the project has made her think about

‘how small changes can have an impact without adding to workload and that sometimes it is doing more of what already works rather than incorporating something completely new.’

 

I full version of this report will soon be available on the UCL website at:

www.ucl.ac.uk/widening-participation/TARP

The Confidence to Lead: a case study

FZ 2018 ML

We know that, compared to other countries in the OECD English teachers are young, less experienced and move more quickly either up the career ladder or out of the profession. This results in middle leaders with relatively little experience, and with fewer ‘wise old colleagues’ around them to mentor or give them guidance.

The average lower-secondary teacher in England had around 13 years’ teaching experience, which was around 4 years lower than the OECD average. The average primary teacher in England had 12 years’ teaching experience, in most other countries the figure was between 15 and 17 years.

The Teaching and Learning International Survey (TALIS) 2018. John Jerrim and Sam Sims UCL, Institute of Education, June 2019

This picture is particularly true in London and so is a challenge for schools such as those I work with in my role at the London Centre for Leadership and Learning, at UCL Institute of Education

Case Study

Future Zone is an educational improvement partnership of 21 schools in Islington, north London, which evolved out of an Education Action Zone formed in 1999. Future Zone currently comprises three secondary schools and 18 primaries. Over the past few years they have collaborated with us on programmes for their new and emerging leaders.

This case study describes the impact of two leadership programmes: ‘Middle Leadership’ and ‘Stepping Up to Senior Leadership’. They cover the years 2017-18 and 2018-19. Twenty of the partnership’s 21 schools engaged in these programmes, developing the leadership skills and identities of 83 teachers. Two of these teachers completed both programmes.

The teachers on these programmes – some with several years’ experience, others with just two – had roles including assistant headteacher or vice principal; leads in literacy, maths, inclusion, or in a phase like Key Stage 1; heads of humanities, modern foreign languages, dance; or had other central roles such as SEN Coordinator or lead for Early Years. In every case they had a line manager back in school with whom they could discuss their progress on the programme.

The Stepping up to Senior Leadership programme was made up of three face-to-face training days, inter-session tasks and readings, and a leadership for change project resulting in a presentation to their peers.

The Middle Leadership programme – with content appropriate to colleagues at that stage in their careers – was similarly constructed, but with five face-to-face days spread across the year.

There were common ‘taught’ elements to each programme. They both began with a consideration of their identities as teachers and their transitions to middle leadership or emergence as leaders entering SLT. Each group engaged with research about leading learning and leading professional learning. There was a strong focus for both on how to build teams, hold people to account and lead change, all while maintaining trust and integrity. We know from the literature and our own work (for example) that learning that might take place in a training room needs to be grounded in the contexts the teachers find themselves in if it is to lead to true development and improvement. Which is why the in-school element of the programme, where they devised and tracked the impact of a change project, was of equal importance.

For the middle leaders, the overwhelming outcome for the programme was the boost it gave to their confidence to meet the various challenges of their roles, for which their prior limited experience had not equipped them. They also valued the opportunity to meet and learn from others in similar positions.

‘It has been such as empowering learning journey as middle leader, which has left me with a vast array of knowledge, strategies and skills to support me in being an effective leader of my subject and other teaching related duties.’

 

‘Just allowing the opportunity to reflect on my middle leadership strategies and to think about how I can improve. It has been thought provoking and with genuinely useful research and methods for implementing effective change.’

 

‘The programme has helped me be confident and it has been a great opportunity to get ideas from other colleagues. I now understand that a ‘tool kit’ of leadership styles is vital with a focus on coaching to create a shared understanding about what needs to be achieved.’

Middle Leader confidence, at the start and end of the 2018-19 programme

 

Before and After FZ ML

Deana_Dawe_Presentation, Winton, Greg and Sam, Michael Crowley  provide a few examples of the posters they produced, summarising the impact of their work on them, their students and their schools.

What did the Senior Leaders say about their programme?

The responses to the Stepping up to Senior Leadership programme were similar:

‘The key to this course for me has been the practical application of its content into my everyday practice. Discussions, readings and activities were all very applicable and relevant to my experiences as a first year AHT.’

 

‘It provided me with opportunities to think about how I want to lead and what areas of difficulty I need to be aware of. I feel I have become more aware of the type of leader I don’t want to be and the elements I want to include in my own practice.’

 

‘I’ve been in my leadership role for a few years now, but this is the first time I have engaged with leadership theory and reflected on my own skills and development needs in such a thorough way.’

This final response was typical of many:

‘Rarely do we get a chance to leave school and spend time on developing ourselves with no other distractions. To do this in a supportive environment with other teachers at a similar level to you has been very inspiring. It has taught ‘theory’ in a way that is practical and relevant to our everyday practice which means it has an actual impact in school day-to-day.’

One of the teachers reported on the impacts of the programme upon her as a leader:

  • A survey of my leadership skills gave an overall positive picture particularly of my use of trust, high expectations and caring and respectful interactions with staff, children, parents and governors.
  • The survey pinpointed areas of development such as being more visible to the whole school staff community especially in terms of new staff; ensuring that I lead, engage and motivate these staff members.
  • Through this project I have developed my ability to lead, plan and implement a project across KS2.
  • The teachers involved in the project have been inspired and have had the freedom to develop the project to improve and inform their own teaching.
  • I have learned that in order to make a project happen you must be visible and check in regularly offering support and advice.
  • I am much more confident speaking to colleagues and giving advice/mentoring/coaching.
  • I am much more confident giving critical feedback and taking critical feedback from my colleagues.
  • My next steps as a leader will be to have a wider impact across the school.

Becky Hodgson